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QFD: - See Quality Function Deployment

QR: - See Quick Response

Qualifier: - A data element, which identifies or defines a related element, set of elements or a segment. The qualifier contains a code from a list of approved codes.

Qualitative Forecasting Techniques: - In forecasting, an approach that is based on intuitive or judgmental evaluation. It is used generally when data are scarce, not available, or no longer relevant. Common types of qualitative techniques include: personal insight, sales force estimates, panel consensus, market research, visionary forecasting, and the Delphi method. Examples include developing long-range projections and new product introduction.

Quality Circle: - In quality management, a small group of people who normally work as a unit and meet frequently to uncover and solve problems concerning the quality of items produced, process capability, or process control. Also see: Small Group Improvement activity

Quality control: - The management function that attempts to ensure that the foods or services manufactured or purchased meet the product or service specifications

Quality Function Deployment (QFD): - A structured method for translating user requirements into detailed design specifications using a continual stream of $what-how' matrices. QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions. It helps organizations seek out both spoken and unspoken needs, translate these into actions and designs, and focus various business functions toward achieving this common goal.

Quality: - Conformance to requirements or fitness for use. Quality can be defined through five principal approaches: (1) Transcendent quality is an ideal, a condition of excellence. (2) Product-based quality is based on a product attribute. (3) Userbased quality is fitness for use. (4) Manufacturing-based quality is conformance to requirements. (5) Value-based quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price. Also, quality has two major components: (a) quality of conformance--quality is defined by the absence of defects, and (b) quality of design--quality is measured by the degree of customer satisfaction with a product's characteristics and features.

Quantitative Forecasting Techniques: - An approach to forecasting where historical demand data is used to project future demand. Extrinsic and intrinsic techniques are typically used. Also see: Extrinsic Forecasting Method, Intrinsic Forecasting Method

Quantity Based Order System: - See Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model

Quarantine: - In quality management, the setting aside of items from availability for use or sale until all required quality tests have been performed and conformance certified.

Quick Response (QR): - A strategy widely adopted by general merchandise and soft lines retailers and manufacturers to reduce retail out-of-stocks, forced markdowns and operating expenses. These goals are accomplished through shipping accuracy and reduced response time. QR is a partnership strategy in which suppliers and retailers work together to respond more rapidly to the consumer by sharing point-of-sale scan data, enabling both to forecast replenishment needs.