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ICC: - See Interstate Commerce Commission

Igloos: - Pallets and containers used in air transportation

Image Processing: - allows a company to take electronic photographs of documents. The electronic photograph then can be stored in a computer and retrieved from computer storage to replicate the document on a printer. The thousands of bytes of data composing a single document are encoded in an optical disk. Many carriers now use image processing to provide proof-ofdelivery documents to a shipper. The consignee signs an electronic pad that automatically digitizes a consignee's signature for downloading into a computer. A copy of that signature then can be produced to demonstrate that a delivery took place.

IMC: - See Intermodal marketing company

Import/Export License: - Official authorization issued by a government allowing the shipping or delivery of a product across national boundaries.

Import: - Movement of products from one country into another. The import of automobiles from Germany to the U.S. is an example.

Impressions: - With regard to online advertising, it is the number of times an ad banner is downloaded and presumably seen by users. Guaranteed impressions refer to the minimum number of times an ad banner will be seen by users.

In-transit Inventory: - Material moving between two or more locations, usually separated geographically

Inbound Logistics: - The movement of materials from suppliers and vendors into production processes or storage facilities.

Incentive rate: - A rate designed to induce the shipper to ship heavier volumes per shipment.

INCOTERMS: - International terms of sale developed by the International Chamber of Commerce to define sellers' and buyers' responsibilities.

Independent action: - A carrier that is a member of a rate bureau has the right to publish a rate that differs from the rate published by the rate bureau.

Independent Demand Item Management Models: - Models for the management of items whose demand is not strongly influenced by other items managed by the same company. These models can be characterized as follows: (1) stochastic or deterministic, depending on the variability of demand and other factors

Independent Trading Exchange (ITE): - Often used synonymously with B2B, e-marketplace or Virtual Commerce Network (VCN). ITE is a more precise term, connoting many-to-many transactions, whereas the others do not specify the transactions.

Indirect Cost: - A resource or activity cost that cannot be directly traced to a final cost object since no direct or repeatable causeand- effect relationship exists. An indirect cost uses an assignment or allocation to transfer cost. Also see: Direct Cost, Support Costs

Indirect Retail Locations: - A retail location that ultimately sells your product to consumers, but who purchases your products from an intermediary, like a distributor or wholesaler.

Indirect/Distributor Channel: - Your company sells and ships to the distributor. The distributor sells and ships to the end user. This may occur in multiple stages. Ultimately your products may pass through the Indirect/Distributor Channel and arrive at a retail outlet. Order information in this channel may be transmitted by electronic means. These means may include EDI, brokered systems, or linked electronic systems.

Infinite Loading: - Calculation of the capacity required at work centers in the time periods required regardless of the capacity available to perform this work.

Information systems (IS): - Managing the flow of data in an organization in a systematic, structured way to assist in planning, implementing, and controlling.

Inherent advantage: - The cost and service benefits of one mode compared with other modes.

Insourcing: - The opposite of outsourcing, that is, a serve performed in-house.

Integrated Logistics: - A comprehensive, system-wide view of the entire supply chain as a single process, from raw materials supply through finished goods distribution. All functions that make up the supply chain are managed as a single entity, rather than managing individual functions separately.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): - A computer term describing the networks and equipment for integrated broadband transmissions of data, voice, and image, from rates of 144 Kbps to 2 Mbps. ISDN allows integration of data, voice, and video over the same digital links.

Integrated tow barge: - A series of barges that are connected together to operate as one unit.

Intellectual Property (IP): - Property of an enterprise or individual which is typically maintained in a digital form. This may include software program code or digital documents, music, videos, etc.

Interchange: - In EDI, the exchange of electronic information between companies. Also, the group of transaction sets transmitted from one sender to one receiver at one time. Delineated by interchange control segments.

Intercoastal carriers: - Water carriers that transport freight between East and West Coast ports, usually by way of the Panama Canal.

Intercorporate hauling: - A private carrier hauling the goods of a subsidiary and charging the subsidiary a fee: this is legal if the subsidiary is wholly owned (100%) or if the private carrier has common carrier authority.

Interleaving: - The practice of assigning an employee multiple tasks which are performed concurrently.

Interline: - Two or more motor carriers working together to haul the shipment to a destination. Carrier equipment may be interchanged from one carrier to the next, but usually the shipment is rehandled without the equipment.

Intermediately Positioned Warehouse: - A warehouse located between customers and manufacturing plants to provide increased customer service and reduced distribution cost.

Intermittent-flow, fixed-path equipment: - Materials handling devices that include cranes, monorails, and stacker cranes.

Intermodal marketing company (IMC): - An intermediary that sells intermodal services to shippers.

Intermodal transport unit (ITU): - Container, swap body or semi-trailer/goods road motor vehicle suitable for intermodal transport.

Intermodal Transportation: - Transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes such as by truck and rail or truck and oceangoing vessel.

Internal customer: - The recipient (person or department) of another person's or department's output (good, service, or information) within an organization. Also see: Customer

Internal Labor and Overhead: - The portion of COGS that is typically reported as labor and overhead, less any costs already classified as "outsourced."

Internal water carriers: - Water carriers that operate over internal, navigable rivers such as the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri.

International Air Transport Association: - An international air carrier rate bureau for passenger and freight movements.

International Civil Aeronautics Organization: - An international agency that is responsible for air safety and for standardizing air traffic control, airport design, and safety features worldwide.

International Standards Organization (ISO): - An organization within the United Nations to which all national and other standard setting bodies (should) defer. Develops and monitors international standards, including OSI, EDIFACT, and X.400

Internet: - A computer term which refers to an interconnected group of computer networks from all parts of the world, i.e. a network of networks. Accessed via a modem and an on-line service provider, it contains many information resources and acts as a giant electronic message routing system.

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC): - An independent regulatory agency that implements federal economic regulations controlling railroads, motor carriers, pipelines, domestic water carriers, domestic surface freight forwarders, and brokers.

Interstate commerce: - The transportation of persons or property between states

Interstate System: - The National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, 42,000 miles of four-lane, limited-access roads connecting major population centers.

Intra-Manufacturing Re-plan Cycle: - Average elapsed time, in calendar days, between the time a regenerated forecast is accepted by the end-product manufacturing/assembly location, and the time that the revised plan is reflected in the Master Production Schedule of all the affected internal sub-assembly/component producing plant(s). (An element of Total Supply Chain Response Time)

Intrastate commerce: - The transportation of persons or property between points within a state. A shipment between two points within a state may be interstate if the shipment had a prior or subsequent move outside of the state and the intent of the shipper was an interstate shipment at the time of shipment.

Intrinsic Forecast Method: - In forecasting, a forecast based on internal factors, such as an average of past sales.

Inventory Accuracy: - When the on-hand quantity is equivalent to the perpetual balance (plus or minus the designated count tolerances).

Inventory Balance Location Accuracy: - When the on-hand quantity in the specified locations is equivalent to the perpetual balance (plus or minus the designated count tolerances).

Inventory Carrying Cost: - One of the elements comprising a company's total supply-chain management costs. These costs consist of the following:  1. Opportunity Cost: The opportunity cost of holding inventory. This should be based on your company's own cost of capital standards using the following formula. Calculation: Cost of Capital x Average Net Value of Inventory  2. Shrinkage: The costs associated with breakage, pilferage, and deterioration of inventories. Usually pertains to the loss of material through handling damage, theft, or neglect.  3. Insurance and Taxes: The cost of insuring inventories and taxes associated with the holding of inventory.  4. Total Obsolescence for Raw Material, WIP, and Finished Goods Inventory: Inventory reserves taken due to obsolescence and scrap and includes products exceeding the shelf life, i.e. spoils and is no good for use in its original purpose (do not include reserves taken for Field Service Parts).  5. Channel Obsolescence: Aging allowances paid to channel partners, provisions for buy-back agreements, etc. Includes all material that goes obsolete while in a distribution channel. Usually, a distributor will demand a refund on material that goes bad (shelf life) or is no longer needed because of changing needs.  6. Field Service Parts Obsolescence: Reserves taken due to obsolescence and scrap. Field Service Parts are those inventory kept at locations outside the four walls of the manufacturing plant i.e., distribution center or warehouse.

Inventory Days of Supply (for RM, WIP, PFG, and FFG): - Total gross value of inventory for the category (raw materials, work in process, partially finished goods, or fully-finished goods) at standard cost before reserves for excess and obsolescence. It includes only inventory that is on the books and currently owned by the business entity. Future liabilities such as consignments from suppliers are not included. Calculation: [5 Point Annual Average Gross Inventory] / [Calendar Year Value of Transfers / 365]

Inventory Deployment: - A technique for strategically positioning inventory to meet customer service levels while minimizing inventory and storage levels. Excess inventory is replaced with information derived through monitoring supply, demand and inventory at rest as well as in motion.

Inventory Management: - The process of ensuring the availability of products through inventory administration.

Inventory Planning Systems: - The systems that help in strategically balancing the inventory policy and customer service levels throughout the supply chain. These systems calculate time-phased order quantities and safety stock, using selected inventory strategies. Some inventory planning systems conduct what-if analysis and that compares the current inventory policy with simulated inventory scenarios and improves the inventory ROI.

Inventory Turnover: - See Inventory Turns

Inventory Turns: - The cost of goods sold divided by the average level of inventory on hand. This ratio measures how many times a company's inventory has been sold during a period of time. Operationally, inventory turns are measured as total throughput divided by average level of inventory for a given period

Inventory Velocity: - The speed with which inventory moves through a defined cycle (i.e., from receiving to shipping).

Inventory: - Raw materials, work in process, finished goods and supplies required for creation of a company's goods and services

IP: - See Intellectual Property

Irregular route carrier: - A motor carrier that is permitted to provide service utilizing any route.

IS: - See Information Systems

ISDN: - See Integrated services digital network

ISO 14000 Series Standards: - A series of generic environmental management standards under development by the International Organization of Standardization, which provide structure and systems for managing environmental compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements and affect every aspect of a company's environmental operations.

ISO 9000: - A series of quality assurance standards compiled by the Geneva, Switzerland-based International Standardization Organization. In the United States, ISO is represented by the American National Standards Institute based in Washington, D.C.

ISO: - See International Standards Organization

IT: - Information Technology.

ITE: - See Independent Trading Exchange

Item: - Any unique manufactured or purchased part, material, intermediate, subassembly, or product.

ITL: - International Trade Logistics

ITU: - See Intermodal Transport Unit